Accomplishments of our great president Obama.

1. Passed Health Care Reform: After five presidents over a century failed to create universal health insurance, signed the Affordable Care Act (2010). It will cover 32 million uninsured Americans beginning in 2014 and mandates a suite of experimental measures to cut health care cost growth, the number one cause of America?s long-term fiscal problems.

2. Passed the Stimulus: Signed $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in 2009 to spur economic growth amid greatest recession since the Great Depression. Weeks after stimulus went into effect, unemployment claims began to subside. Twelve months later, the private sector began producing more jobs than it was losing, and it has continued to do so for twenty-three straight months, creating a total of nearly 3.7 million new private-sector jobs.

3. Passed Wall Street Reform: Signed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (2010) to re-regulate the financial sector after its practices caused the Great Recession. The new law tightens capital requirements on large banks and other financial institutions, requires derivatives to be sold on clearinghouses and exchanges, mandates that large banks provide ?living wills? to avoid chaotic bankruptcies, limits their ability to trade with customers? money for their own profit, and creates the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (now headed by Richard Cordray) to crack down on abusive lending products and companies.

4. Ended the War in Iraq: Ordered all U.S. military forces out of the country. Last troops left on December 18, 2011.

5. Began Drawdown of War in Afghanistan: From a peak of 101,000 troops in June 2011, U.S. forces are now down to 91,000, with 23,000 slated to leave by the end of summer 2012. According to Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta, the combat mission there will be over by next year.

6. Eliminated Osama bin laden: In 2011, ordered special forces raid of secret compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, in which the terrorist leader was killed and a trove of al-Qaeda documents was discovered.

7. Turned Around U.S. Auto Industry: In 2009, injected $62 billion in federal money (on top of $13.4 billion in loans from the Bush administration) into ailing GM and Chrysler in return for equity stakes and agreements for massive restructuring. Since bottoming out in 2009, the auto industry has added more than 100,000 jobs. In 2011, the Big Three automakers all gained market share for the first time in two decades. The government expects to lose $16 billion of its investment, less if the price of the GM stock it still owns increases.

8. Recapitalized Banks: In the midst of financial crisis, approved controversial Treasury Department plan to lure private capital into the country?s largest banks via ?stress tests? of their balance sheets and a public-private fund to buy their ?toxic? assets. Got banks back on their feet at essentially zero cost to the government.

9. Repealed ?Don?t Ask, Don?t Tell?: Ended 1990s-era restriction and formalized new policy allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the military for the first time.

10. Toppled Moammar Gaddafi: In March 2011, joined a coalition of European and Arab governments in military action, including air power and naval blockade, against Gaddafi regime to defend Libyan civilians and support rebel troops. Gaddafi?s forty-two-year rule ended when the dictator was overthrown and killed by rebels on October 20, 2011. No American lives were lost.

11. Told Mubarak to Go: On February 1, 2011, publicly called on Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to accept reform or step down, thus weakening the dictator?s position and putting America on the right side of the Arab Spring. Mubarak ended thirty-year rule when overthrown on February 11.

12. Reversed Bush Torture Policies: Two days after taking office, nullified Bush-era rulings that had allowed detainees in U.S. custody to undergo certain ?enhanced? interrogation techniques considered inhumane under the Geneva Conventions. Also released the secret Bush legal rulings supporting the use of these techniques.

13. Improved America?s Image Abroad: With new policies, diplomacy, and rhetoric, reversed a sharp decline in world opinion toward the U.S. (and the corresponding loss of ?soft power?) during the Bush years. From 2008 to 2011, favorable opinion toward the United States rose in ten of fifteen countries surveyed by the Pew Global Attitudes Project, with an average increase of 26 percent.

14. Kicked Banks Out of Federal Student Loan Program, Expanded Pell Grant Spending: As part of the 2010 health care reform bill, signed measure ending the wasteful decades-old practice of subsidizing banks to provide college loans. Starting July 2010 all students began getting their federal student loans directly from the federal government. Treasury will save $67 billion over ten years, $36 billion of which will go to expanding Pell Grants to lower-income students.

15. Created Race to the Top: With funds from stimulus, started $4.35 billion program of competitive grants to encourage and reward states for education reform.

16. Boosted Fuel Efficiency Standards: Released new fuel efficiency standards in 2011 that will nearly double the fuel economy for cars and trucks by 2025.

17. Coordinated International Response to Financial Crisis: To keep world economy out of recession in 2009 and 2010, helped secure from G-20 nations more than $500 billion for the IMF to provide lines of credit and other support to emerging market countries, which kept them liquid and avoided crises with their currencies.

18. Passed Mini Stimuli: To help families hurt by the recession and spur the economy as stimulus spending declined, signed series of measures (July 22, 2010; December 17, 2010; December 23, 2011) to extend unemployment insurance and cut payroll taxes.

19. Began Asia ?Pivot?: In 2011, reoriented American military and diplomatic priorities and focus from the Middle East and Europe to the Asian-Pacific region. Executed multipronged strategy of positively engaging China while reasserting U.S. leadership in the region by increasing American military presence and crafting new commercial, diplomatic, and military alliances with neighboring countries made uncomfortable by recent Chinese behavior.

20. Increased Support for Veterans: With so many soldiers coming home from Iraq and Iran with serious physical and mental health problems, yet facing long waits for services, increased 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs budget by 16 percent and 2011 budget by 10 percent. Also signed new GI bill offering $78 billion in tuition assistance over a decade, and provided multiple tax credits to encourage businesses to hire veterans.

21. Tightened Sanctions on Iran: In effort to deter Iran?s nuclear program, signed Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act (2010) to punish firms and individuals who aid Iran?s petroleum sector. In late 2011 and early 2012, coordinated with other major Western powers to impose sanctions aimed at Iran?s banks and with Japan, South Korea, and China to shift their oil purchases away from Iran.

22. Created Conditions to Begin Closing Dirtiest Power Plants: New EPA restrictions on mercury and toxic pollution, issued in December 2011, likely to lead to the closing of between sixty-eight and 231 of the nation?s oldest and dirtiest coal-fired power plants. Estimated cost to utilities: at least $11 billion by 2016. Estimated health benefits: $59 billion to $140 billion. Will also significantly reduce carbon emissions and, with other regulations, comprises what?s been called Obama?s ?stealth climate policy.?

23. Passed Credit Card Reforms: Signed the Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility, and Disclosure Act (2009), which prohibits credit card companies from raising rates without advance notification, mandates a grace period on interest rate increases, and strictly limits overdraft and other fees.

24. Eliminated Catch-22 in Pay Equality Laws: Signed Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act in 2009, giving women who are paid less than men for the same work the right to sue their employers after they find out about the discrimination, even if that discrimination happened years ago. Under previous law, as interpreted by the Supreme Court in Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., the statute of limitations on such suits ran out 180 days after the alleged discrimination occurred, even if the victims never knew about it.

25. Protected Two Liberal Seats on the U.S. Supreme Court: Nominated and obtained confirmation for Sonia Sotomayor, the first Hispanic and third woman to serve, in 2009; and Elena Kagan, the fourth woman to serve, in 2010. They replaced David Souter and John Paul Stevens, respectively.

26. Improved Food Safety System: In 2011, signed FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which boosts the Food and Drug Administration?s budget by $1.4 billion and expands its regulatory responsibilities to include increasing number of food inspections, issuing direct food recalls, and reviewing the current food safety practices of countries importing products into America.

27. Achieved New START Treaty: Signed with Russia (2010) and won ratification in Congress (2011) of treaty that limits each country to 1,550 strategic warheads (down from 2,200) and 700 launchers (down from more than 1,400), and reestablished and strengthened a monitoring and transparency program that had lapsed in 2009, through which each country can monitor the other.

28. Expanded National Service: Signed Serve America Act in 2009, which authorized a tripling of the size of AmeriCorps. Program grew 13 percent to 85,000 members across the country by 2012, when new House GOP majority refused to appropriate more funds for further expansion.

29. Expanded Wilderness and Watershed Protection: Signed Omnibus Public Lands Management Act (2009), which designated more than 2 million acres as wilderness, created thousands of miles of recreational and historic trails, and protected more than 1,000 miles of rivers.

30. Gave the FDA Power to Regulate Tobacco: Signed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (2009). Nine years in the making and long resisted by the tobacco industry, the law mandates that tobacco manufacturers disclose all ingredients, obtain FDA approval for new tobacco products, and expand the size and prominence of cigarette warning labels, and bans the sale of misleadingly labeled ?light? cigarette brands and tobacco sponsorship of entertainment events.

31. Pushed Federal Agencies to Be Green Leaders: Issued executive order in 2009 requiring all federal agencies to make plans to soften their environmental impacts by 2020. Goals include 30 percent reduction in fleet gasoline use, 26 percent boost in water efficiency, and sustainability requirements for 95 percent of all federal contracts. Because federal government is the country?s single biggest purchaser of goods and services, likely to have ripple effects throughout the economy for years to come.

32. Passed Fair Sentencing Act: Signed 2010 legislation that reduces sentencing disparity between crack versus powder cocaine possessionfrom100 to1 to 18 to1.

33. Trimmed and Reoriented Missile Defense: Cut the Reagan-era ?Star Wars? missile defense budget, saving $1.4 billion in 2010, and canceled plans to station antiballistic missile systems in Poland and the Czech Republic in favor of sea-based defense plan focused on Iran and North Korea.

34. Began Post-Post-9/11 Military Builddown: After winning agreement from congressional Republicans and Democrats in summer 2011 budget deal to reduce projected defense spending by $450 billion, proposed new DoD budget this year with cuts of that size and a new national defense strategy that would shrink ground forces from 570,000 to 490,000 over the next ten years while increasing programs in intelligence gathering and cyberwarfare.

35. Let Space Shuttle Die and Killed Planned Moon Mission: Allowed the expensive ($1 billion per launch), badly designed, dangerous shuttle program to make its final launch on July 8, 2011. Cut off funding for even more bloated and problem-plagued Bush-era Constellation program to build moon base in favor of support for private-sector low-earth orbit ventures, research on new rocket technologies for long-distance manned flight missions, and unmanned space exploration, including the largest interplanetary rover ever launched, which will investigate Mars?s potential to support life.

36. Invested Heavily in Renewable Technology: As part of the 2009 stimulus, invested $90 billion, more than any previous administration, in research on smart grids, energy efficiency, electric cars, renewable electricity generation, cleaner coal, and biofuels.

37. Crafting Next-Generation School Tests: Devoted $330 million in stimulus money to pay two consortia of states and universities to create competing versions of new K-12 student performance tests based on latest psychometric research. New tests could transform the learning environment in vast majority of public school classrooms beginning in 2014.

38. Cracked Down on Bad For-Profit Colleges: In effort to fight predatory practices of some for-profit colleges, Department of Education issued ?gainful employment? regulations in 2011 cutting off commercially focused schools from federal student aid funding if more than 35 percent of former students aren?t paying off their loans and/or if the average former student spends more than 12 percent of his or her total earnings servicing student loans.

39. Improved School Nutrition: In coordination with Michelle Obama, signed Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act in 2010 mandating $4.5 billion spending boost and higher nutritional and health standards for school lunches. New rules based on the law, released in January, double the amount of fruits and vegetables and require only whole grains in food served to students.

40. Expanded Hate Crimes Protections: Signed Hate Crimes Prevention Act (2009), which expands existing hate crime protections to include crimes based on a victim?s sexual orientation, gender, or disability, in addition to race, color, religion, or national origin.

41. Avoided Scandal: As of November 2011, served longer than any president in decades without a scandal, as measured by the appearance of the word ?scandal? (or lack thereof) on the front page of the Washington Post.

42. Brokered Agreement for Speedy Compensation to Victims of Gulf Oil Spill: Though lacking statutory power to compel British Petroleum to act, used moral authority of his office to convince oil company to agree in 2010 to a $20 billion fund to compensate victims of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico; $6.5 billion already paid out without lawsuits. By comparison, it took nearly two decades for plaintiffs in the Exxon Valdez Alaska oil spill case to receive $1.3 billion.

43. Created Web site run by independent board of inspectors general looking for fraud and abuse in stimulus spending, provides public with detailed information on every contract funded by $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Thanks partly to this transparency, board has uncovered very little fraud, and Web site has become national model: ?The stimulus has done more to promote transparency at almost all levels of government than any piece of legislation in recent memory,? reports Governing magazine.

44. Pushed Broadband Coverage: Proposed and obtained in 2011 Federal Communications Commission approval for a shift of $8 billion in subsidies away from landlines and toward broadband Internet for lower-income rural families.

45. Expanded Health Coverage for Children: Signed 2009 Children?s Health Insurance Authorization Act, which allows the Children?s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) to cover health care for 4 million more children, paid for by a tax increase on tobacco products.

46. Recognized the Dangers of Carbon Dioxide: In 2009, EPA declared carbon dioxide a pollutant, allowing the agency to regulate its production.

47. Expanded Stem Cell Research: In 2009, eliminated the Bush-era restrictions on embryonic stem cell research, which shows promise in treating spinal injuries, among many other areas.

48. Provided Payment to Wronged Minority Farmers: In 2009, signed Claims Resolution Act, which provided $4.6 billion in funding for a legal settlement with black and Native American farmers who the government cheated out of loans and natural resource royalties in years past.

49. Helped South Sudan Declare Independence: Helped South Sudan Declare Independence: Appointed two envoys to Sudan and personally attended a special UN meeting on the area. Through U.S. ambassador to the United Nations Ambassador Susan Rice, helped negotiate a peaceful split in 2011.

50. Killed the F-22: In 2009, ended further purchases of Lockheed Martin single-seat, twin-engine, fighter aircraft, which cost $358 million apiece. Though the military had 187 built, the plane has never flown a single combat mission. Eliminating it saved $4 billion


Emily Ratajkowski


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Emily O’Hara Ratajkowski is an American model and actress. Born in London, England to American parents and raised primarily in California, she rose to prominence after appearing in the music video for Robin Thicke’s “Blurred Lines”, which became the number one song of the year 2013 in several countries. Following its success, she became a high profile sex symbol, appeared in the 2014 Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue and began a movie career.

emily-ratajkowski-naked (1)

Emily Ratajkowski’s modeling career has progressed from retail adwork to arthouse erotica and high fashion. She appeared on the cover of the March 2012 issue of erotic magazine treats! This led to her being asked to appear in two music videos. Among her other cover appearances are GQ, Cosmopolitan and FHM. She has now been in two Swimsuit Issues.


Emily Ratajkowski’s acting career began with youth acting roles in the San Diego area before she gained a recurring role on iCarly and later roles in major films. Her feature film debut was as the mistress of Ben Affleck’s character in the 2014 film Gone Girl. Her 2015 films include Entourage, her first leading role in the upcoming We Are Your Friends, with Zac Efron, and The Spoils Before Dying.

Early life

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An only child,[4] Ratajkowski was born in Westminster, London, to American parents.[5] At the time of her birth her mother and father were aged 39 and 45, respectively,[6] and not married;[7] her mother Kathleen Balgley, a professor of English and writer described by Ratajkowski as a “feminist and intellectual”,[8][9] was in London temporarily to teach under the Fulbright Program.[7] Kathleen and Ratajkowski’s father John David “J. D.” Ratajkowski, a painter and art teacher,[8] had met when they both taught at San Dieguito Academy in Encinitas, California, near San Diego.[10][11] The family settled in San Diego when Ratajkowski was five.[8][12] She was raised primarily in Encinitas in a small house near the ocean.[13]

Ratajkowski’s father is of Polish and Irish descent;[10] her maternal grandfather was a Polish Jewish immigrant to the United States and her maternal grandmother was of Irish and German origin.[10][14] Her father was raised Catholic; her mother was raised Jewish and teaches at the San Diego Jewish Academy.[15] Her mother formerly taught at California Polytechnic State University, known as Cal Poly.[13] When asked about her heritage in 2012, Ratajkowski answered “Polish Israeli”, although she had not yet been to Israel.[16] She lived in and traveled to many parts of Europe during her youth, and has described spending long periods in Bantry, County Cork, Ireland, and Mallorca, Spain.[5][12] From her early youth to the start of her career as a full-time model she spent each summer in Ireland.[10] She has said that she grew up without the influence of television. Before modeling, she tried soccer, acting and ballet.[2]

Exposure to the nude female figure in photography and art during her formative years prepared Ratajkowski for her eventual nude and semi-nude appearances before the camera.[17] Ratajkowski said she is comfortable with the naked body due to her background and life experiences, stating “We have this culture of men, especially, watching pornography, but then [are] offended by a classic nude portrait or photograph, and I’ve never felt that way”.[17] Her father’s work as a visual artist exposed her to nudity in art.[18] Ratajkowski also frequently visited nudist beaches during her youth in Europe; she said, “Mom was topless on the beach every summer in Majorca”.[8] Among her influences was exposure to the photography of Helmut Newton and Herb Ritts in books.[17]

Ratajkowski enjoyed doing theatrical performances for her family as a child.[19] Her first formal acting role was as Elsa in a production of The Little Match Girl at the Theatre School of the North Coast Repertory Theatre in Solana Beach, California.[4] She also appeared as Harriet in the 2004 interactive production of Harriet Potter and the Throne of Applewort at Lyceum Theatre in Horton Plaza.[20] After gaining local youth acting experience, she was told that modeling could be a gateway into an acting career.[4] She was inspired by Bianca Jagger and Patti Smith.[17] Ratajkowski was signed by Ford Models at age 14.[8] She continued to attend high school in San Diego at San Dieguito Academy, while she modeled and acted in Los Angeles.[21]

In her adolescent years, Ratajkowski decided to pursue an acting career, but in auditions she was often cast as a “bitchy girl”,[8] cheerleader, or other limited roles she did not want.[21] After two nondescript movie roles, Ratajkowski appeared as Gibby’s girlfriend Tasha in two third-season episodes of Nickelodeon’s iCarly. Despite her previous minor film roles, she described her iCarly role as “my first and only acting job”.[2] Her manager discouraged her from pursuing many acting engagements until she was in a position to be more selective.[8][21]

External video
“Frederick’s of Hollywood ? Holiday 2012″ posted December 4, 2012
Frederick’s KNBC Valentine’s Day 2011 segment posted February 11, 2011
Carl’s Jr. “BBQ’s Best Pair” Commercial (uncut) posted February 19, 2013
Ratajkowski attended University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) for one year in 2009, then decided to model full-time.[8] She worked for Forever 21, Kohl’s and Nordstrom, swimwear and lingerie clients,[8][22] but became recognized as a fashion model after shooting several campaigns and editorials with photographer Tony Duran.[22] She also did nude and clothed art magazine photograph shoots,[13] including a June 2012 shoot with Jonathan Leder,[23] and modeling work for Frederick’s of Hollywood.[24] As of July 12, 2014, two videos in which she appeared for the company?a featured Holiday 2012 video and a local Valentine’s 2011 video?were among the five most popular videos on the company’s YouTube channel.[25]

The March 2012 Issue 3 treats! cover featuring Ratajkowski is the image that led to her being cast in the video for “Blurred Lines”
After her work with Duran, she began shooting more fashion editorials and posed for several of the first few issues of the Los Angeles-based artistic erotica magazine treats!, and appeared on the cover of the magazine’s March 2012 third issue.[8][26] She credits the magazine for bringing her the two unsolicited, high-profile, music video roles.[9][27]

Ratajkowski was featured with Sara Jean Underwood in a Carl’s Jr. commercial in August 2012.[16] The advertisement was produced in a 30-second version and an uncut version lasting over a minute.[28] At about the same time she became a Nikon model.[8] She has worked with photographers such as Tony Kelly, with whom she shot the March 2013 cover of GQ Turkey. The images from that cover story were later re-used in the July/August 2013 issue of American GQ after her music video appearances were launched.[22][29] As a 5-foot-7-inch (1.70 m) model with “curves that put her in a different class from runway models”, Ratajkowski considers herself to have the potential to break barriers for models, saying, “I want to be a model that breaks down the traditional body boundaries. You don’t have to be 5’9″ and an A-cup to be a successful model, and that’s nice.”[30]

Music video performances[edit]
Ratajkowski is well known for appearing in Robin Thicke, T.I., and Pharrell Williams’ video “Blurred Lines”. Before her “Blurred Lines” performance, Ratajkowski had been cast in two other music videos; “Fast Car” by Taio Cruz,[31] which was released on November 5, 2012,[32] and Maroon 5′s “Love Somebody”,[2] which was released two months after “Blurred Lines”.[2][9] Both “Love Somebody” and “Blurred Lines” were produced in 2013.[2][33] A YouTube video about the making of the “Love Somebody” video shows that it was shot on January 16, 2013.[34] The “Love Somebody” video was released on Vevo on May 21, 2013.[35] It was directed by Rich Lee, and shows barechested Adam Levine using inverse green screen technology to rub paint onto Ratajkowski with his hands. As they touch they reveal each other.[36][37] Levine “caresses and serenades” Ratajkowski during the video.[9]

Thicke had seen Ratajkowski on the cover of treats! magazine in what Bee Shapiro of The New York Times described as a “an artfully composed black-and-white photograph of Ms. Ratajkowski sitting completely nude with her knees tucked to her chest” and convinced director Diane Martel to cast her in the “Blurred Lines” music video. Upon viewing the cover, Martel decided that “She looked smart and stunningly beautiful”.[8] Ratajkowski initially declined the role, but Martel persuaded her to accept it.[13] She had feared being classified as a music video model.[8] The “Blurred Lines” music video was released on YouTube on March 20, 2013.[22][38] An explicit version of the video, with extensive nudity, was posted by Thicke on March 28, 2013.[39][40] Ratajkowski danced topless in one version of the video and was scantily clad in the other.[9] In the explicit version, the models “cavort” about the stage in shoes and nude-colored thongs for a large portion of the video, while the fully dressed men flirt with them.[41] Although YouTube banned the explicit version of the video on April 1 for violating its Community Guidelines due to its sexually explicit nature,[39] the explicit video remains available, although age-restricted, on the site.[40] Ratajkowski said she felt the attention given to the nudity in the video illustrated that American culture had not advanced as far as it should have. She said, “We’re at an interesting time where women have been told to take the [birth control] pill is cool, to sleep with whomever you want, or wear what you want. But if you’re naked, it can be offensive or sexist in some way.”[17] She said sexuality is repressed in contemporary society, which is bad for both sexes.[4]

We’re [the women in "Blurred Lines"] directed to have a sort of confidence, a sarcastic attitude about the whole situation [depicted in the video]. That eye contact and that attitude really puts us in a power situation. The [music video] director, Diane Martel, is a woman, and so is the [director of photography]. We really worked on that and tried to convey that in the video. The way we are annoying [the men in the video], being playful and having a good time with our body [sic]?it’s something very important for young women today to have that confidence. I think it’s actually celebrating women and their bodies.

?Emily Ratajkowski,[9] discussing her role in “Blurred Lines”
In addition to creating controversy for the nudity in its video, “Blurred Lines” was criticized as being sexist and for its approach to rape, particularly in regard to the repeated phrase “I know you want it”.[41] Ratajkowski told Esquire she did not think the video is sexist.[9] She told Complex magazine, “I think there’s different kinds of nudity, and there’s different kinds of sexiness, and obviously it’s hard to distinguish those things. I think that the video was tasteful, beautiful, and there’s nothing offensive about it.” She also said she interpreted the video to be about “these ladies being silly and a little sarcastic”.[42] In a September 2014 cover story for Ocean Drive magazine, Ratajkowski said the song “gave me an opportunity to say the things that I felt about feminism today and about women in general in pop culture”.[17]

“Blurred Lines” went on to become the number 1 song of 2013 on music charts in many countries, including Canada,[43] Ireland,[44] Netherlands,[45] New Zealand,[46] and United Kingdom.[47] Although the song placed second on the year-end US Billboard Hot 100 chart,[48] the song’s twelve consecutive weeks at number one made it the longest-running number-one single since “I Gotta Feeling” held the spot for 14 consecutive weeks in 2009.[49] It was the longest running number one song of the 2010s decade until “Uptown Funk” surpassed it with a streak of fourteen consecutive weeks at number one in 2015.[50][51]

Rise to fame[edit]
The “Blurred Lines” video garnered Ratajkowski much fame and attention,[9] especially as a sex symbol.[52] On October 22, 2013, Esquire named Ratajkowski the “Woman of the Year”, beating Jennifer Lawrence in the final round of an online fan voting contest.[53] In December of that year, Rolling Stone listed her among its 20 hottest sex symbols (from both sexes) of the year.[52] On February 4, 2014, Sports Illustrated named Ratajkowski as one of its 12 rookies for its 50th anniversary Swimsuit Issue.[54] On April 30, 2014, FHM ranked Ratajkowski the fourth sexiest woman in the world.[55] On May 23, 2014, Maxim included her at #62 on its annual Hot 100 list.[56][57] She also was invited to the 18th annual May 15, 2014 Cond Nast Traveler Hot List Party.[58] Ratajkowski won the “Our New Girlfriend Award” at the Spike Guys’ Choice Awards on June 7, 2014.[59] AskMen ranked Ratajkowski the third most desirable woman of 2014 and the hottest model of the year.[60][61]

She also appeared topless on the cover of Carine Roitfeld’s magazine CR Fashion Book in erotic scenes with Karlie Kloss and male models, photographed by Bruce Weber in July 2013.[8][9][62] Ratajkowski parlayed her sudden prominence into supporting roles in major films.[8] She played Andie Hardy, the mistress of Ben Affleck’s character, in David Fincher’s 2014 film adaptation of Gillian Flynn’s novel Gone Girl.[63] She got the part through a New York City “cattle call” audition and a subsequent Los Angeles reading with Affleck and Fincher.[64] Fincher was seeking an actress who could bring a divisive element to the film.[13] Affleck encouraged Fincher to consider Ratajkowski for the part after seeing her in the “Blurred Lines” video.[17] Her hometown newspaper U-T San Diego described Ratajkowski’s performance in Gone Girl as “nuanced”.[4] Styleite???’??s Ben Barna said he received positive feedback on her performance.[65] Much of the commentary about her appearance in the film focussed on her sex appeal,[66][67][68] but some noted that her small role as a “duplicitous and manipulative former student” was critical to the film.[69][70]

On June 24, 2014, Ratajkowski appeared topless on the cover and in a photograph spread in the July 2014 edition of American GQ.[71] The newly single model gave men dating advice in the online videos and cover story.[72] The magazine caused controversy at retailer Lands’ End, which had arranged for its best customers to receive a free copy of the issue. Some of the company’s customers objected to the racy cover and accompanying images in the associated story. As a result of the customer dissatisfaction, Lands’ End CEO Edgar Huber made a public apology.[73]

On August 15, 2014, Ratajkowski became the new face of Italian retailer Yamamay.[74][75] In September, she was among a large group of female celebrities involved in a multiple wave of hacking and internet posting of nude photographs in September.[76][77] A few days after Gone Girl premiered at the 2014 New York Film Festival on September 26,[78][79] Ratajkowski was announced as the covergirl for the November 2014 issue of Cosmopolitan.[80] On October 30, 2014, she appeared with Taylor Kitsch in the live-action trailer for Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare in advance of its November 4 release.[81][82] Ratajkowski appeared on the cover of the February 2015 issue of FHM,[83][84] but she claimed via Twitter that her picture was used without her consent.[85][86] FHM has stated “We liked the pictures so much we stuck one on our front cover”.[87]

Her sex appeal remained high, as evidenced by a #18 ranking in the FHM 100 Sexiest Women In The World 2015 list released on April 28.[88] On May 4, 2015, she attended the Met Gala, and made news by wearing a dress from Topshop that was priced to be affordable to the masses.[89][90][91]

Ratajkowski co-starred in the 2015 film Entourage, in which she appeared as a fictionalized version of herself.[13][92] Her role as Vincent Chase’s (played by Adrian Grenier) visually appealing love interest was described in a myriad of sexist ways in the press,[93][94][95] with several mentions of her as the object of multiple affections.[96][97][98] However, her performance received critical commentary ranging from “less than compelling” by the The Hollywood Reporter???’??s Sheri Linden to “uncanny realisim” by The Philadelphia Inquirer???’??s Steven Rea,[99][100] while her hometown movie critic Anders Wright of The San Diego Union-Tribune remained silent on her role.[101] Wesley Morris of Grantland described her role and performance with some sarcasm: “the holy presentation of the model and actress Emily Ratajkowski as a combination of Angelina Jolie, Julia Roberts, and a walking Viagra dispenser”.[102] Some critics, including A. O. Scott of The New York Times and Alonso Duralde of TheWrap, noted her early disappearance from the film.[103][104][105] On July 31, 2014, Ratajkowski announced her first leading role opposite Zac Efron in We Are Your Friends, which was set to begin production on August 18.[106] In March 2015, Ratajkowski was announced as part of the cast for The Spoils Before Dying.[107][108]

Referenced : Emily Ratajkowski Wiki

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Frequently Asked Questions About Using Nitrous Oxide


Since there are very few SC’s using nitrous, I frequently get asked questions about how it works and what stumbling blocks I have encountered. The learning curve has been long and expensive. But who said racing was cheap?

How does nitrous oxide work?

Nitrous oxide is a chemical composed of two parts oxygen, one part nitrogen. When stored in a nitrous bottle, it is in a liquid state under pressure. When this liquid is released into the atmosphere, it instantly becomes a very cold gas. When it is injected into and engine, you are in effect supplying the motor with lots of cold air. In order to maintain the proper air to fuel ratio in the cylinders, you must add fuel to the mixture as well. You can add fuel together with the nitrous in the same nozzle (this is called a wet kit) or you can add fuel through your existing fuel injectors by increasing fuel pressure (this is called a dry kit). This large volume of cold air and fuel being injected into the motor creates more horsepower.
The amount of nitrous and fuel are controlled by precise orifices in the nozzle called jets. This controls the volume of nitrous (and fuel on a wet kit) which is actually injected into motor. Different sized jets are available for different applications. Simply changing these jets allows you to change the horsepower level of your nitrous kit, and allows you to tune the air/fuel ratio if necessary.

What does a nitrous kit consist of?

The main components of the kit are the nitrous bottle, nitrous lines, nitrous solenoids, fogger nozzle, and associated wiring. The bottle is normally mounted in the trunk and stainless steel braided lines are run into the engine compartment. They are connected to the solenoids that operate like an electric valve to turn the nitrous flow on and off. Then the solenoids are connected to the fogger nozzle on the intake manifold where the nitrous is actually injected into the motor. If you are using a wet nitrous kit, you will also have a line running from you fuel rail to the fogger nozzle to supply fuel with the nitrous. A dry kit includes an adapter that increases fuel pressure via the fuel pressure regulator. The solenoids are wired to a switch within reach of the driver where he can turn it on and off.

How do you use nitrous?

Nitrous relies on the engines existing airflow to draw it through the intake manifold into the cylinders.
Most cars require that you only use nitrous if the engine speed is over 3000rpm so that there is enough engine vacuum to draw in the mixture. On a supercharged application where the engine airflow is already very high at lower rpms, you can activate it sooner. You must be at full throttle whenever using the nitrous. This allows the engine computer to add more fuel and reduce engine timing. If you have a standard transmission, you will have to ensure that the nitrous is shut off when you lift the throttle to shift gears. Failure to meet these conditions will likely result in an engine backfire (explosion in the intake manifold) and serious damage to the engine including the supercharger and intercooler. Another consideration is over revving your engine while using nitrous. If you happen to mis-shift your transmission, or encounter excessive wheelspin, the rpms will climb very quickly. If you don’t react fast enough, you will hit the rev limiter and the engine computer will cut spark to some or all of the cylinders. This could also result in a nitrous backfire. As a general rule, you will use the nitrous as soon as traction permits off the line. Traction becomes a serious problem when you have 60-100hp at a touch of a button. A 10lb bottle of nitrous will last 6-10 quarter mile runs depending on how much horsepower shot you are using.

Should I use a wet kit or dry kit?

Everybody has their own opinion on this topic and there are advantages and disadvantages to both types of kits.

Nitrous Oxide Systems is the only company that sells dry nitrous kit since they invented and patented the technology. Dry kits are easy to install since they don’t require you to run any fuel lines. All of the fuel required by the kit is supplied by raising fuel pressure through your fuel injectors to 70-80psi. There is a far less chance of backfires since you are not injecting raw fuel into the intake manifold and it can’t puddle. Dry kits are limited because your fuel injectors and fuel pump can only supply so much fuel at this high pressure.

Wet kits use a fogger nozzle where the nitrous and fuel are injected together. You must run a fuel line from the fuel rail’s schrader valve (the port where you measure the fuel pressure) to the fogger nozzle to supply the fuel. Wet kits do not increase fuel pressure. They allow you to tune your nitrous kit more accurately because you have direct control over how much fuel is being injected by the nozzle. Wet kits are not limited by how much fuel your injectors can supply or how much fuel your fuel pump can supply at high pressure. There is a much greater chance of nitrous backfires since you are injecting raw fuel into the intake manifold.

I believe a dry kit is the best choice for applications from 60-100hp. The kit is simple, safe, and reliable. If you want to exceed 100hp, then a wet kit is better since you will be able to control the fuel delivery better. You would need a heavily modified Super Coupe to withstand a nitrous shot over 100hp. I don’t know of anybody reliably running that much nitrous at this time.


How hard is it to install a nitrous kit?

If you are comfortable performing your own maintenance on your car, you will likely be able to install it yourself. The only tricky part is mounting the fogger nozzle on the SC. It needs to be tapped into the lower intercooler tube (after the intercooler and before the intake manifold) for best results. You can also install it to the elbow from the lower intercooler tube to the intake manifold. I chose to install it in the lower intercooler tube since it was easier to drill the hole and made the nozzle more accessible for changing jets. Extra care must be taken to ensure no metal particles fall into the motor. I would not recommend injecting nitrous at the throttle body since the nitrous must travel through the supercharger and intercooler. The extremely cold temperature of the nitrous could have adverse effects on these components. This is especially dangerous if you are using a wet kit since there is a much greater chance of the fuel puddling at the supercharger or in the intercooler resulting in a backfire. It is ideal to inject the nitrous as close to the intake manifold as possible so that the motor receives a colder nitrous charge and for better nitrous/air/fuel mixture. Specific instructions for installing the other components are not specific to the SC so I won’t get into them here. Detailed instructions will come with the kit.
Shown below is a temporary plug where the fogger nozzle would normally be mounted in the lower intercooler tube. The other shows the fogger nozzle mounted in the upper intercooler tube.


How much nitrous can I safely run on my SC?

Nitrous Oxide Systems (NOS) recommends 60 hp for a stock SC using their dry kit. This is what NOS considers to be a safe and reliable level for the application. Upgrading the exhaust system will yield greater gains from your nitrous kit. Should you decide to use more than the recommended 60 horsepower shot, it will be done so at your own risk.

Do I need to upgrade my ignition system to run nitrous?

The Ford DIS ignition system is more than capable of sustaining over 400hp. I have not seen evidence that aftermarket ignition boxes like the MSD are beneficial for the Super Coupe. NOS recommends gapping your sparkplugs lower to .035 from the stock .054 to better ignite the mixture. I have tried changing the sparkplug gaps from .035 to .045 and did not notice any difference. I run a stock ignition system on my car with Taylor sparkplug wires and NGK Platinum sparkplugs.

Do I need to upgrade my fuel system to run nitrous?

A stock engine with a 60 hp nitrous kit can run the stock fuel pump. If you have other modifications, or want to run more than 60 hp nitrous, your fuel pump should be upgraded using a 190 lph or 255 lph in tank pump. You can use a BBK or Walboro pump for a 87-93 EFI 5.0L Mustang.

What are the advantages of nitrous oxide?

The main advantages of using nitrous oxide are the price and performance. There is no modification that will give you more horsepower per dollar gains that nitrous will. It is relatively easy to install as well. Nitrous also generates instant horsepower when you hit the button. You have an instant horsepower gain where naturally aspirated, supercharged, or turbocharged motors must build engine rpm and boost to make more horsepower. This is especially effective for quarter mile drag racing since you get a large surge of power off the line to get the car moving. Nitrous is especially effective on the Super Coupe since it is already supercharged and intercooled. A 60hp nitrous kit will drop your ET’s by about one second. A 100 hp kit on my modified motor dropped my ET’s by almost two seconds.

What are the disadvantages of nitrous oxide?

The major disadvantage of using nitrous oxide is having to refill the bottle. Some people say that “it’s not there all the time” and that is somewhat true. Other engine mods will be active all of the time. I consider nitrous to be an addition to my existing modifications, not a substitute.
You must be cautious when handling nitrous. The gas is extremely cold and can cause serious injury if it comes into contact any part of your body. It should also not be inhaled as it starves your brain of oxygen and can cause unconciousness and/or brain damage.
There can be some danger if the nitrous bottle pressure becomes too high. This can be caused by overheating the bottle, overfilling of the bottle, or leaving the bottle in direct sunlight on a hot day. There is a safety blowoff valve on the nitrous bottle to release the contents to atmosphere at 1500 psi. This is to prevent the bottle from actually exploding and potentially killing somebody.

Some people claim that nitrous will “blow you motor” but that is only a result of improper use or installation. When a nitrous kit is installed and tuned properly, it s perfectly safe for your motor at the manufacturer’s recommended horsepower level. If you decide to increase the horsepower of your kit beyond the manufacturer’s recommendations, then you do so at your own risk. You have nobody to blame but yourself if your engine is damaged.

What kind of problems should I be aware of when using nitrous?

Upgrading the exhaust system is always a good idea when modifying an engine. The SC exhaust is already restrictive on an unmodified motor. I would strongly recommend you upgrade the exhaust system from the exhaust manifolds back. Headers would help a lot too if they are within your budget. If you intend on using more than 60hp or if you already have engine modifications, you will need to upgrade the fuel pump as well.

Keep in mind that you are increasing the horsepower output of your car by up to 100 hp. If you car was only engineered to handle a certain horsepower level, then increasing the horsepower by any means, whether it be by engine modifications, supercharger, turbocharger, or nitrous oxide, you will quickly find where the limitations are. Don’t blame the nitrous kit for making too much horsepower!

Earlier model Super Coupes (89-93) are known to have weak head gaskets to begin with. If your car is high mileage with original head gaskets, the additional horsepower from a nitrous kit may cause them to blow. Some SC owners have claimed that simply installing a supercharger overdrive pulley caused their head gaskets to blow. Ford revised and improved the head gaskets in the 94-95 Super Coupes and should not suffer from this problem. If you are replacing your head gaskets, I would recommend using the ARP head studs available from the SCCoA.

The Super Coupe uses soft liquid filled motor mounts to absorb vibration from the motor. Spirited driving in a unmodified SC is enough to break these mounts. The additional horsepower from a nitrous kit will likely accelerate the wear. You can upgrade them to solid rubber mounts found in naturally aspirated V6 Thunderbirds. You will notice slightly more engine vibration though.

If you have installed a aftermarket computer chip such as Hypertech or Superchips, you will likely have to remove it before using nitrous. These chips increase engine timing which will cause detonation when using nitrous. You must be running normal engine timing when using nitrous. I am using a completely stock engine control computer and no aftermarket chip on my car.

The Ford Double Platinum sparkplugs are not suitable for high horsepower nitrous applications. The platinum disks attached to the electrodes will blow off under extreme cylinder pressure (the electrodes themselves don’t blow off). This substantially increases the spark plug gap and will cause misfiring. This may not occur at the 60 hp level, but will definitely occur at the 100 hp level. I would recommend regular Ford plugs or NGK Platinum sparkplugs for this application. I don’t like the Bosch Platinum plugs since the electrode is extremely small and tends to burn back into the ceramic insulator.
Which nitrous kit should I buy for my SC?

Most nitrous kits contain the same parts. Some lines, brackets, or wiring may be different to fit specific applications. I would recommend using a nitrous kit for a 87-93 EFI 5.0L Mustang. NOS offers a Stage 1 kit (up to 100hp) and a Stage 2 kit (up to 150hp) kit for this application. The Stage 2 kit includes different jets, and a Bosch in-line high pressure fuel pump. For our application, only the Stage 1 kit is necessary. The Mustang kits are the most common, and are cheaper than other kits. The brand name you choose will depend on personal preference and price. Some brands to consider are NOS, Compucar, Nitrous Express, and ZEX. Note that NOS brand jets are the most common, cheap, and easy to find. Compucar jets are harder to find, and are much more expensive.

What optional accessories should I consider for my nitrous kit?

There are many accessories that contribute to the safety and convenience of using nitrous.
The first is the wide-open-throttle switch. This is standard with all kits but many choose not to install it. This switch only allows the nitrous to be activated when you are full throttle. Activating the nitrous system at idle or part throttle will likely result in a backfire and serious engine damage. This is a must!

Next is an rpm activated window switch. This module will only allow the nitrous to be activated above and below two preset rpm points. For example, from 3000 to 6000rpm. Above or below this window, the nitrous kit will automatically shut off to prevent engine damage.

A nitrous bottle pressure gauge will let you monitor and maintain the proper pressure of your nitrous bottle. If the pressure it too high, the car will run lean. If the pressure is too low, it will run rich. Nitrous kits are designed to run with the bottle pressure between 950 and 1050 psi.

A bottle heater is critical if you want to use nitrous on cool days or cold nights. The bottle pressure must be 950-1050 psi. The pressure will drop below this if the weather is too cold. The bottle heater will maintain the temperature for optimum performance. NOS makes a bottle heater which is thermostatically controlled – just turn it on and forget about it. Other heaters have no automatic control and must be manually shut off when the desired pressure is reached.

A bottle blanket is an insulated cover for your bottle that helps hold the heat in and requires the bottle heater to cycle on less often. It looks nice, it’s cheap, and functional.

A remote bottle valve is a nice luxury to have. Normally you would have to turn the bottle valve on each time before using the nitrous, then turn it off afterwards. This valve allows you to keep the bottle open in the trunk at all times and have it ready for use at a flick of a switch. This also gives you a secondary method of stopping nitrous flow to the motor should a nitrous solenoid fail.

A second nitrous bottle (or a larger 15lb bottle) is a must for serious racers. This way you are never caught empty handed. There are times when you just can’t get the bottle refilled when you need it.

A fuel pressure gauge and exhaust gas temperature gauge will help you tune you nitrous kit for maximum results. This will let you know if your fuel supply cannot keep up and if you motor is running rich or lean. If you only intend on running a 60 hp kit, these are really not necessary.


Nitrous Oxide can be a safe and cost effective method of increasing horsepower in the Super Coupe.
Nitrous oxide should be considered as a modification for racing purposes only. It’s only purpose is to get you to the end of the quarter mile before the other guy. There are certain safety and reliability issues associated with racing any car and the Super Coupe is no exception. If you are going to increase the horsepower output and race on a regular basis, you will break parts. This is a risk you accept when you become an active drag racer. Nitrous is not for everybody. Some prefer to perform smaller modifications which they can feel all of the time. Others want an all out rush of power for drag racing. That is something you have to decide for yourself. If your budget is big enough, you can have both. I can tell you from experience that the feeling of a 100 hp surge at the touch of a button is addictive. Once you’ve tried it, you won’t want to give it up.

You can find plenty of useful information about general nitrous oxide applications from NOS’s website at www.nosnitrous

Nitrous FAQ


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Article Author
Jill Mayes



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